To understand the difference between a ‘personal foul’ and a ‘common foul’ it is important to understand the personal foul first.
A personal foul involves illegal contact with an opponent while the ball is live, this includes contact by or on an airborne shooter. It also includes in the definition, ‘which hinders an opponent from performing normal defensive and offensive movement.’
Now the difference between the two. A common foul is a personal foul that is committed on an opponent not trying or tapping for a goal. The play below is a foul and must be called, especially when there is a possession consequence, meaning the opposing team gained an advantage by causing the turnover.